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Eastern North America

Pedicellate Species

Sessile Species

Pollinators of Trillium

Trillium grandiflorum, with its white flowers and nectar, is pollinated by Hymenoptera, including honey bees, bumblebees, and perhaps wasps. Trillium erectum, at least the dark red form, has no nectar and is pollinated by flies (Diptera) and beetles (Coleoptera). It remains to be seen how widely these observations can be generalized. We also need to capture the species found visiting flowers of red erectum and identify them more specifically.

The white Trillium simile is a puzzle. The only insects seen visiting those flowers have been small flies (Drosophila or Syrphids or?) and weevils (Coleoptera). This species and its relation to erectum album need much more study.

Although T. cuneatum and T. luteum seem to be sibling species, or even two forms of a single species, it has been suggested that small flies visit cuneatum but flies have not been seen on luteum. This pair of species also needs more investigation.

For information about this account, contact:

James E. Shields, <>, webmaster
Last revised: 30 December 2011
© Copyright 2011 by James E. Shields. All rights reserved.